1.

学位論文(AKAGI収録)

学位
横山, 孝一
出版情報: 群馬高専レビュー.  pp.29-40,  2020-03-31.  群馬工業高等専門学校
2.

学位論文(AKAGI収録)

学位
横山, 孝一
出版情報: pp.41-52,  2020-03-31.  群馬工業高等専門学校
3.

学位論文(AKAGI収録)

学位
横山, 孝一
出版情報: 群馬高専レビュー.  pp.53-64,  2020-03-31.  群馬工業高等専門学校
4.

論文(AKAGI収録)

論文(AKAGI収録)
横山, 孝一
出版情報: 群馬高専レビュー.  pp.9-20,  2018-03-26.  群馬工業高等専門学校
概要: This is a critical essay on Bill O’Reilly’s American best-seller, Killing the Rising Sun: How America Vanquished World W ar II Japan (2016), which, soon introduced through the Internet, shocked some Japanese intellectuals. Considering the pitiless, ill-intentioned content for the Japanese, the book will never be translated into Japanese and probably remain unknown to ordinary people in Japan, many of whom like the United States. The writer of this essay, a Japanese scholar of comparative literature, analyzes how the atomic bombings are justified in Killing the Rising Sun, and criticizes the book using relevant materials, like the TV drama The Pacific produced by Steven Spielberg and Tom Hunks, which describes how innocent patriots like Eugene Sledge were to become coldblooded killers through the bloody battles against Japanese counterparts in Pacific islands like Peleliu; such theme is so universal that the series still has fans in Japan. The Japanese translation of Tears in the Darkness: the Story of the Bataan Death March and Its Aftermath, a wonderful book by Michael & Elizabeth Norman, also has succeeded in moving the Japanese readers with the two different perspectives of America and Japan, and the authors’ sympathetic attitudes toward the ex-enemies. For example, the so-called beasts did not use Japanese swords so often as the fans of Killing the Rising Sun might imagine: in Mr. and Mrs. Norman’s book, a Japanese officer used his precious weapon just after he knew that the captive had stolen some money from one of his dead soldiers. Bill O’Reilly, on the contrary, only tells stories about good Americans fighting bad Japanese. Since he uses the present tense showing how America comes to drop the atomic bombs, it is understandable that his hatred is keen enough to appreciate Truman’s decision to kill hundreds of thousands of Japanese civilians even though the president seems to have regretted to know that innocent women and children also died the most violent deaths ever known in human history. As Yuko Tojo, granddaughter of war-time prime minister Hideki Tojo, was welcomed by American veterans, offering flowers at the memorial service for the US marines in Peleliu in 1999, Japan and the United States are now close friends, having forgiven each other. Japan’s war crimes were severely punished at the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and other trials in foreign countries such as China, the Philippines, and Russia. Nearly one thousand Japanese were executed, some of whom had been wrongly accused and spent their agonizing last days. General Iwane Matsui, one of the unfortunate, had respected China and had ordered all his soldiers to maintain military discipline, but was hanged for the now-called Rape of Nanking. Having built Koua-Kannon (a statue of the Goddess of Mercy for the Rising Asia) in Atami, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan, the retired general had prayed every day for the souls of both the dead Japanese and Chinese soldiers. The Kannon statue still exists tenderly preserved by an elderly nun and her supporters. The world will admit that the Japanese are now peace-loving people. The atomic attacks are justified in Killing the Rising Sun in four ways: 1) by insisting that the Japanese were beasts; Tojo was a Hitler; Emperor Hirohito was incompetent, 2) by regarding the bombings as rightful revenge to Pearl Harbor, 3) by stressing that the two bombs saved “hundreds of thousands” of American soldiers, and 4) by mentioning that Bill O’Reilly was born thanks to the atomic bombs which saved the life of his future father who was about to take part in MacArthur’s land invasion of Japan. In answer to these, 1) The Japanese soldiers were not beasts, let alone women and children. Their violent acts were due to the nature of war itself. Somehow O’Reilly has omitted the last important sentence from the diary of a Japanese medical doctor who joined the killing of Chinese villagers: “War is truly terrible.” Tojo was no Hitler at all: as a believer in the future world free of racial discrimination, he let his subordinate Major General Higuchi save many Jews from the Nazis in Manchuria in 1938. No one can deny that the Emperor was a well-respected man leading the postwar Japan spiritually from the ashes to one of the wealthiest nations in the world. 2) Even the Tokyo trials rejected “the sneak attack.” The fact was, Japan was compelled to fight the unwanted war by President Roosevelt. 3) As Samuel J. Walker clarifies, the large number was a myth. Instead, “thousands” was said during the war. 4) Only this cannot be denied. It was a good thing that his father was alive. Yet it is more reasonable for Mr. O’Reilly to be grateful to the hundreds of thousands of Japanese substitutes, not to the terrible bombs. The Japanese people prefer to let bygones be bygones. In May 27, 2016, President Barak Obama said in Hiroshima, “We come to mourn the dead, including over 100,000 in Japanese men, women, children; thousands of Koreans; a dozen Americans held prisoners.” The US President was welcomed even by the aged, atomic bomb survivors. In conclusion, let us just set aside the heated disputes, and pray for all the war victims even if they were enemies. Mourning the dead is of crucial importance for world peace. 続きを見る
5.

論文(AKAGI収録)

論文(AKAGI収録)
横山, 孝一
出版情報: 群馬高専レビュー.  pp.21-26,  2018-03-26.  群馬工業高等専門学校
概要: This is an introduction for young Japanese learners of English to e-future (Korean publisher)’s new graded comic readers series of Vera the Alien Hunter (2016) written by Jason Wilburn & Casey Kim, and illustrated by Seungjun Park & Bioh Kang. The wonderful writing team of Wilburn & Kim reminds us of their former excellent works: Magic Adventures (2012) and School Adventures (2014), in both of which the charming siblings Jack and Bella are actively involved, leading the stories to happy endings. Compared to these adventures, the new illustrations are somewhat inferior to Jaehwan Jung’s in techniques; the character designs are rather unoriginal (in fact, Luca will never fail to remind the reader of Japan’s well-loved manga character Dora-emon). However, the plot of Vera the Alien Hunter is so well-made that the reader will never be able to predict how the series of Vera and Luca may be concluded. It can be read as a graphic novel of the teacher-student relationship where Luca earnestly teaches and trains Vera until she becomes the earth’s reliable alien hunter. The theme is their friendship in a Western sense, but more accurately, the typical, Eastern cultural affection between teacher and student, which can be found similar to the relationship between the Japanese-like teacher Yoda and his disciple Luke Skywalker in Star Wars. In the theme song recorded in the attached CD, Luca says to his student, “You have to trust me. You have to do your best. I’ll help you learn the things you need to know,” and Vera answers, “Yes, I will trust you. I’ll learn all I can learn. I will succeed if I believe in me.” Interestingly, the message suggests that the reader will succeed in learning English if he or she trusts this set of textbooks. Through the interesting comic books, it might be possible to gain as great self-confidence as the obedient student Vera has done. 続きを見る
6.

論文(AKAGI収録)

論文(AKAGI収録)
横山, 孝一
出版情報: 群馬高専レビュー.  pp.27-38,  2018-03-26.  群馬工業高等専門学校
概要: This paper is a comparative study on Lyman Frank Baum’s The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900) and its musical movie version The Wizard of Oz (1939), referring to other movies like The Wiz (1978) and Oz the Great and Powerful (2013), TV series Emerald City (2017), several Japanese translations, and four graded reader versions published by Oxford, Compass, Macmillan, and IBC. It consists of six sections: 1) The Contrast of the Gray Kansas and the Colorful Oz World (Baum’s intentional gray versus color expressions are reflected in the famous switch from the black-and-white Kansas scenes to the color ones of the Land of Oz in the first Technicolor movie, whose technique the recent Disney film has imitated with the help of upgraded technology. One Japanese translator, however, somehow missed the keyword “gray,” and two out of the four graded reader writers omitted it). 2) Are Munchkins Abnormally Small? (Although Baum did not describe Munchkins as abnormally small, in the musical movie they were played by dwarfs from all over the United States. This movie’s influence has been so powerful that not only Oz the Great and Powerful but also three graded readers seem to follow suit). 3) Why Does Dorothy Want to Return to Kansas? (Dorothy explains to the Scarecrow, saying “there is no place like home” in the original book, which is faithfully repeated in the 1939 movie fortified with Aunt Em’s motherly devotion to the girl. Yet, this important phrase is not included in Compass and Macmillan). 4) How Japanese Translators Had Difficulties Translating “I”s of the Main Characters (Quite different from English, the Japanese language has several counterparts of “I,” depending on his or her personality, so Japanese translators had to interpret each character’s personality. Motoyuki Shibata, ex- Tokyo University professor of American literature and one of the leading novel translators in Japan, uniquely chose “watashi” for “I”s of Oz, the Scarecrow, the Tin Woodman, and the Cowardly Lion, presumably because they are symbolically parts of one man). 5) Is Emerald City Not Green? (In Baum’s book, Dorothy and her companions are made to wear green glasses, which Oz himself later admits to be his trick to make the city look greener. The movies show the Emerald City is really green enough as the young Oz in the 2013 Disney film says, “It’s a good thing my favorite color is green.” The graded readers, with the exception of IBC which is almost always true to the original plot, have two different simplifications: the green spectacles are necessary because the city is not green at all, or such glasses areunnecessary since, as in Oz the Great and Powerful, Emerald City is actually filled with greens. Oxford and Compass c hose the former, and Macmillan the latter). 6) The Limitations and Defects of Graded Readers (Except IBC, the graded readers excluded the final journey to meet Glinda, which turns out to be the abridged versions’ characteristic imperfections. Though the final part of Baum’s original book may appear to be redundant, it is full of unique characters, two of which are the fighting trees in the 1939 movie and China Girl in the 2013 one). The conclusion is that Lyman Frank Baum’s The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and the 1939 film version are now so closely related that both have mixedly influenced the later productions, including movies, Japanese translations, and even graded readers (Like Judy Garland, Oxford’s Dorothy wears “red shoes” instead of the Silver Shoes) . 続きを見る
7.

論文(AKAGI収録)

論文(AKAGI収録)
横山, 孝一 ; Yokoyama, Koichi
出版情報: 群馬高専レビュー.  pp.13-24,  2017-03-23.  群馬工業高等専門学校
概要: This paper is a complete guide to the 72 books written by Haruko Shogenji (1914-2015), one of Japan’s leading authors of children’s books. According to the trilogy of her autobiographical novels, she spent most of her childhood in the Tohoku region, and then, due to her father’s job transfer, her family moved to Kyoto, where she was bullied by her classmates, which was to turn into several novels, then they went to Korea under Japan’s colonial rule, where she felt uncomfortable, thinking it wrong to live happily in the foreign land. Experiencing the misery of World War II, Shogenji wrote, in her early career, about a girl who felt miserable with her family members staying at their relative’s home, always hungry during the war, and about a boy who lost his parents in an air raid, suffering a lot to live on his own. Some idealism after the war seems to have permeated all her works. Haruko Shogenji was good at describing the sensitive workings of children’s mind; their happiness as well as their sorrow. She wrote not only realistic fiction but also fantasy, for example, about ancient Egyptians she was very interested in. 続きを見る
8.

論文(AKAGI収録)

論文(AKAGI収録)
横山, 孝一 ; Yokoyama, Koichi
出版情報: 群馬高専レビュー.  pp.25-32,  2017-03-23.  群馬工業高等専門学校
概要: This is an introduction to two unique kinds of graded readers: Helbling Young Readers Fiction (2014), and e-future Grade d Comic Readers’ Jack and Bella series consisting of Magic Adventures (2012) and School Adventures (2014). The former, published in London, UK, are beautifully illustrated picture books such as The Beach (written by Rick Sampedro and illustrated by Agilulfo Russo), The Sun is Broken (written by Andrés Pi Andreu and illustrated by Catty Flores), and Henry Harris Hates Haitches (written by Maria Cleary and illustrated by Lorenzo Sabbatini), all of which are good examples of wonderful collaboration between an author and an illustrator. Although the main purpose of graded readers is to make learners accustomed to reading in English, some of these books are so artistic that they are really worth much more recognition by avid book lovers all over the world. It is such a relief to know that there is at least a “Language Learner Literature Award,” which was rightly given to Maria Cleary and Lorenzo Sabbatini’s Skater Boy, the very simple but quite powerful picture book about a mysterious boy hero. The latter, published in Seoul, Korea, is a readable series of comic books, which must be far more enjoyable among children who, whether they like it or not, have to study the international language, for Jason Wilburn and Casey Kim’s story-making is so splendid (in fact they are genius in combining the evil force of the crystal with environmental problems in “Dark’s Hearts” of Magic Adventures, and in retelling children’s classics like Peter Pan, The Wizard of Oz, and Robin Hood in “Storybook Mysteries” of School Adventures, using their own protagonists: Jack and Bella) and Jaehwan Jung’s anime-like character design is so charming that the results turn out to be another instance of successful collaboration. Therefore it is strongly recommended that both Magic and School Adventures be read as fantastic works of manga on their own, not just as tools for learning English. 続きを見る
9.

論文(AKAGI収録)

論文(AKAGI収録)
横山, 孝一
出版情報: 群馬高専レビュー.  pp.1-11,  2017-03-23.  群馬工業高等専門学校
概要: This paper is a minute study about Majutsu wa sasayaku written by Japan’s most popular mystery novelist Miyuki Miyabe, a nd its 1980s’ background. The novel was published in 1989, at the peak of the “bubble” economy in which the nation flourished more than ever, and many girls enjoyed luxurious lifestyles dating handsome boyfriends and sometimes some of them met other men for money or fun without conscience, more freely than ever. A keen observer, Ms. Miyabe critically described such tendency, focusing on the loneliness and suffering of the unfortunate who were not popular with girls; the serious but ignored problem was to be at last dealt with in 1999 by the male literary critic Atsushi Koyano in his bestseller Motenai otoko (A Man Unpopular with Girls). Therefore, Majutsu wa sasayaku deserves a wider recognition that it is not so much an interesting mystery novel of a hypnotist-killer as a precious document about Japan in the 1980s. The English translation of Majutsu wa sasayaku came out under the title of The Devil’s Whisper in 2007. Considering the fact that it was 18 years after the publication of the original, the release seems a bit too late. Maybe that was the reason that “198X,” the very first word of the Japanese text in Prologue, was intentionally eliminated. Unless the readers of this English version know that it is the translation of the old book, they will tend to start reading it as a story of Japan in this 21st century. But of course, they will notice sooner or later that the scenes are those of the 1980s because there are neither cell phones, not to mention smartphones, nor the Internet, and the 1987 movie The Last Emperor (directed by Bernardo Bertolucci) and American actresses such as Brooke Shields and Phoebe Cates are mentioned in the novel. In conclusion, The Devil’s Whisper would have been a much better book if it had included “198X,” actually, either 1988 or 1989 according to the conversation about The Last Emperor, which was released in Japan in January, 1988. The English translator should have made it clear with both exact translations of proper nouns (like Almond Roppongi) and their explanatory notes that the novel vividly describes the socalled bubble period of Japan. 続きを見る
10.

論文(AKAGI収録)

論文(AKAGI収録)
横山, 孝一 ; Yokoyama, Koichi
出版情報: 群馬高専レビュー.  pp.21-31,  2016-03-15.  群馬工業高等専門学校
概要: This is a close examination of the English translation (2005) of Miyuki Miyabe’s Crossfire (1998) so as to show how the Japanese mystery is translated into English. It will be helpful for future translators to know some rules and methods revealed in this paper. By following the painful efforts of the two translators, Deborah Stuhr Iwabuchi and Anna Husson Isozaki, I have generalized such know-how. While evaluating the two women’s work, I point out their careless mistakes. Whether on purpose or not, some omissions seem to be rather serious defects. Of course, other seeming weak points are not necessarily their faults. There are definite limits of translation, especially from Japanese into English: The nuances of some Japanese words like ofukuro and obasan are impossible to express in English. The young waiter’s distinctive way of talking also cannot be translated; his funny tones completely disappear in the English version, but that is an exact example of the impossibility of translation. The paper consists of seven sections: Introduction: a summary of Crossfire, 1) the opening dream (contrary to the original, the English version cannot hide that the dreamer is a woman), 2) various ways of using italics (effective for emphasis, especially in inner monologues), 3) English counterparts of police terms (because of Captain Ito, the original “Captain” is changed into “Skipper”), 4) Chinese characters (in most cases, the meanings of kanji are just ignored, yet the ironical, literal meaning of Kei-ichi, the name of a criminal, is explained properly; Seika-Gakuen, a proper noun, is even translated as Essence Academy), 5) the limits of English translation and some countermeasures (literal translation is often meaningless to foreign readers, so English substitutes will be useful like cake for sekihan), and Conclusion: examples of bad omission and good translation (although several impressive scenes and words are carelessly removed, most of the thematic lines are duly translated). The best thing about the English version is that it includes the key word “crossfire,” because it is not found in the original text, and most Japanese readers do not know what it really means even though it is the title of the novel they have enjoyed. 続きを見る